Action Unit Combination 5+7
A. Appearance Changes due to AU Combination 5+7Some of the elements described separately for AUs 5 and 7 are combined when both AUs are present. AU 5 cancels the effect of AU 7 on the upper eyelid, so that 5 shapes the upper lid and 7 shapes the lower lid.
1. Raises the upper eyelid; the upper eyelid may disappear from view. (Compare images 5+7 with 7). The upper lid may not be raised as severely as in AU 5 alone, since AU 7 tends to pull it down. (Compare images 5+7 and 5).
2. As a result of the raising of the upper eyelid, more of the upper portion of the eye is exposed. How much is exposed depends upon how much of the upper portion of the eyeball is normally exposed in the neutral position and how strong the action of AU 5 is. Sclera above the iris may also be exposed depending upon the position of the upper eyelid in the neutral face and how strong AU 5 is.
3. As a result of the raising of the upper eyelid, the shape of the upper rim of the eye changes as portions of the lid medially and/or laterally are pulled up. This changed shape of the eye usually results in exposure of more sclera adjacent to the iris medially and/or laterally.
4. Due to the changes described under 2 and 3 above, the person seems to be staring in a fixed fashion, almost as if the eyeball were protruding.
5. Tightens the lower eyelid, making it raised to a small extent and more straightened or raised in the center. (Compare 5+7 and 5.)
9. AU 5 widens the eye aperture while AU 7 narrows the eye aperture, the resulting eye aperture is a compromise between the two actions.
Compare the combination of AUs in image 5+7 with the separate AUs in images 5 and 7. Inspect the video of 5+7.
0 page 465 5i page 467 5ii page 467 7 page 468 5+7 page 470 page 381 for score page 383 for score page 383 for score page 384 for score page 386 for score page 415 for score
B. How to do AU Combination 5+7Follow the instructions, repeated below, for each AU separately. Try doing 5, then adding 7. Note that 7 tends to pull the upper eyelid down, diminishing the appearance of 5. Force 5 back, against the pressure of 7, but maintaining 7's effect on the lower lid.
AU 5 (repeated from page 25): This movement is easy. Raise your upper eyelid as hard as you can so you can feel it pushing upwards against your eye cover fold. Observe whether or not sclera is exposed. If you have any difficulty, just try to open your eyes as wide as you can, increasing your field of vision and bulging your eyes. Try to do a weak version.
AU 7 (repeated from page 28): This movement is fairly easy to do. Tense your eyelids but not enough to close your eyelids completely. Do it as weakly as you can. If you have difficulty, think about narrowing your eye aperture to a slit so that you can see your eyelashes. Be careful you are not also lowering your eyebrow (AU 4). Be careful you are not also wrinkling your nose (AU 9). Be careful you are not also raising your cheeks (AU 6).
C. Intensity Scoring for AU Combination 5+7The criteria for AU 5 in AU Combinations of 5+7 are unchanged from AU5 alone and are repeated below. There is only a minor modification of those for AU 7B.
The appearance changes for AU 5 are sufficiently present to indicate AU 5, but are insufficient to score 5B (e.g., a trace of upper lid raising that exposes more of the iris or sclera).
1. If the upper lid covers part of the iris in the neutral face, upper lid raise must be sufficient to expose virtually (very nearly) the entire iris, but no more than a hairline of sclera must be exposed above the iris. If more than a hairline of sclera shows, score 5C, 5D, or 5E.
2. If the entire iris shows in the neutral face, upper lid raise must be sufficient to expose sclera above iris, more than just a hairline of sclera is required to be exposed, but not much more. If much more than a hairline of sclera, score 5C, 5D, or 5E).
The sclera exposed is more than allowed by the 5B criteria, i.e., if the upper lid covers part of the iris in the neutral face, slightly more than a hairline of sclera is exposed; or if entire iris shows in the neutral face, markedly more sclera must be revealed, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 5D. When the eyes are deeply set or in some Asian faces, you may never see sclera in 5CDE, and you must make the decision based upon how much wider the eye aperture has become.
The amount of sclera exposed must be severely more than exposed in the neutral face, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 5E.
The upper eyelid is raised as much as the person can do, and close to the maximum sclera that the person can show is exposed above the iris, and there must be a bulging or staring appearance without doubt.
Intensity may vary for the two sides of the face, but give only one score that represents the higher intensity. Examine photo w5ii. Note the E level is reached on only one side of the face. But the score of E is given to the entire AU 5.
The intensity criteria for AU 7 in combination 5+7 presented below are modified from 7 alone.The appearance changes for AU 7 in 5+7 are sufficiently present to indicate AU 7, but are insufficient to score 7B in 5+7 (e.g., a trace of lower lid raising).
1. The lower lid is raised and the skin below the eye is drawn up and medially towards the inner corner of the eye slightly.
If you did not see the lower lid move up, then the following criterion must be met.
2. The raising of the lower eyelid skin over the bottom of the eyeball causes a slight bulge to appear in the lower lid, since this skin is stretched over the bottom of the eyeball.
Note the AU 7B in image 5+7 meets criterion 2.At least marked change in the criteria listed for 7B, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 7D in 5+7.
At least severe change in the criteria listed for 7B, but the evidence is less than the criteria for AU 7E in 5+7.