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Action Unit Combinations 6+43E, 7+43E


A. Appearance Changes due to AU Combinations 6+43E, 7+43E

Both combinations involve a closed eye (AU 43E) with the addition of tightening of the muscles around the eye. These two combinations are best learned by considering them together.
6+43E
7+43E
1. The eyes are closed.
2. Skin around a larger circumference than in 7+43E is pulled towards the eye.
3. Infraorbital triangle raised, crow's feet wrinkles, and infraorbital furrow may deepen. Due to the raising of the infraorbital triangle there may be bagging, or wrinkling of skin below the lower eyelid.
4. The eyebrows may be lowered to a limited extent.
1. The eyes are closed.
2. Skin below the lower eyelid is pulled towards the root of the nose.
3. Lower eyelid furrow may become more evident.

The presence of AU 7 in the combination 6+7+43E may be difficult to detect. If you are in doubt about whether AU 7 is present with 6+43E, score 6+43E. Compare the AU 43E in image 43iii with images 6+43E and 7+43E. Identify the differences between 6+43E and 7+43E. Although the brows are lowered in image 6+43E, the face is not scored as 4+6+43E. To score AU 4 in addition to AU 6, the brows must also be drawn together. See 4+6 vs. 6 in Table 2-1 on page 41. Also inspect the video of 6+43E and 7+43E. The video shows 6+43E, then 7+43E.
43iii page 469
6+43E page 473
7+43E page 473
page 381 for score
page 385 for score
page 389 for score
page 389 for score
page 416 for score

B. How to do AU Combinations 6+43E and 7+43E

You may be able to perform these actions with one eye and look at yourself in the mirror with the other eye. Often, however, people cannot do such unilateral actions, or cannot do them without muscle spasms. If that is the case, inspect this action on another person. Close your eyes and relax completely, so you do just AU 43E. Then tighten AU 7 so that the skin of the lids and below the lower lid tightens, pulling up and in towards the root of the nose. Then squeeze harder, adding AU 6 so that the infraorbital triangle raises, and crow's feet wrinkles appear. Instructions for AUs 6 and 7 are repeated below.

AU 7 (repeated from page 28): This movement is fairly easy to do. Tense your eyelids but not enough to close your eyelids completely. Do it as weakly as you can. If you have difficulty, think about narrowing your eye aperture to a slit so that you can see your eyelashes. Be careful you are not also lowering your eyebrow (AU 4). Be careful you are not also wrinkling your nose (AU 9). Be careful you are not also raising your cheeks (AU 6).

AU 6 (repeated from page 32): This action is difficult to produce on demand without including other actions, especially 7. Concentrate on lifting your cheeks without actively raising up the lip corners (that is AU 12). Take time in trying this Action Unit as it may not be possible to do it at first. If you have difficulty:

· Try making AU 15 (see the AU 15 description on page 100). While holding 15 on your face try to lift your cheeks upwards. Once you can do 6+15, try 6 alone.
· Try AU 9 (see the AU 9 description on page 93), while holding it on your face add 6. Once you can do 6+9, try 6 alone.
· Try AU 12 (see the AU 12 description on page 178), note what happens around your eyes. Now try to do that same appearance without moving your lip corners.
· Try winking, using your cheek in the wink. Note how your cheek lifts. Now do that cheek lift without the wink.
· Try squinting your eyes as though to block out a bright sun, and although this motivation is likely to produce AUs 4 and 7 as well, you can refine these movements to exclude all but AU 6.

C. Intensity Scoring for AU Combinations 6+43E and 7+43E

The intensity criteria for scoring AU 6 in the combination of 6+43E are not changed from AU 6 alone. The criteria for scoring AU 43E in these combinations are altered only slightly for bilateral versions of these combinations, but the criteria for intensity scoring of AU 7 are changed significantly in its combination with AU 43E.

If the signs of AU 6 can be scored with 43, then be sure you can see the contribution of AU 7 independently of AU 6 in the form of lower lid tightening and upward movement of the lower eyelid when you are considering scoring 6+7+43E.

AU 6A
The appearance changes for AU 6 are sufficiently present to indicate AU 6, but are insufficient to score 6B (e.g., slight crow's feet or slight cheek raise).
AU 6B
Marked change on either criterion 1 or 2 below or slight on both 1 and 2 is sufficient to score 6B.
1. Crow's feet wrinkles; if present in neutral, they must increase.
or
2. Infraorbital triangle raise: cheeks up, infraorbital furrow deepened, and bags or wrinkles under eyes; if present in neutral, the furrow and either bags or wrinkles under the eyes must increase.
AU 6C
The crow's feet wrinkling and infraorbital triangle raising criteria for 6B are both present and both are at least marked, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 6D.
AU 6D
The crow's feet wrinkling and infraorbital triangle raising criteria for 6B are both present and both are at least severe, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 6E.
AU 6E
Crow's feet wrinkling and infraorbital triangle raising are both present, with the infraorbital triangle and cheek raising in the maximum range.

The criteria for intensity scoring of AU 7 below are changed significantly in its combination with AU 43E from those for 7alone.

AU 7A in 7A+43E
The appearance changes for AU7 are sufficiently present to indicate AU 7, but are insufficient to score 7B (e.g., slight tightening of the lids).
AU 7B in 7B+43E
1. Marked tightening of the lids.
or
2. Slight change on both of the signs below:
· tightening of the lids
· bulge or pouch in the lower eyelid skin.
AU 7C in 7C+43E
Pronounced tightening of the lids and presence of bagging and/or pouching in the lower eyelid skin, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 7D.
AU 7D in 7D+43E
Extreme tightening of the lids and presence of bagging and/or pouching in the lower eyelid skin, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 7E.
AU 7E in 7E+43E
Maximum tightening of the lids and presence of bagging and/or pouching in the lower eyelid skin.

The criteria for intensity scoring of AU 43 below are changed slightly in its combination with AU 7 from those for 43E alone.

AU43E in 7+43E or 6+43E
Eyes are definitely closed and remain closed for more than they are tightened closed.

Unilaterally of 6+43E and 7+43E

If L43E or R43E is scored unilaterally in combination with AUs 6 or 7, use the following criterion for scoring the eye closure:
The closed eye is tightened or squeezed shut for more than 2 seconds

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A Human Face