Action Unit Combination 1+2+5
A. Appearance Changes due to AU Combination 1+2+5The combination of these three AUs raises the inner and outer portions of the brow and raises the upper eyelid. Most of the changes described separately for AU Combination 1+2 and AU 5 are preserved, although the combination of 1+2+5 results in one minor changed appearance (see appearance change 6 below).
3. Bunches the skin of the forehead so that horizontal wrinkles appear across the entire forehead. These wrinkles may not appear in infants and children.
6. The upper eyelid may be less evident than in a 1+2 without 5. The upper eyelid raise is as evident as in 5 alone but the disappearance of the upper eyelid may be diminished by the stretching of the eye cover fold by 1+2.
7. As a result of the raising of the upper eyelid, more of the upper portion of the eye is exposed. How much is exposed depends upon how much of the upper portion of the eyeball is normally exposed in the neutral position and how strong is the action of 5. Sclera above the iris may also be exposed, depending upon the position of the upper lid in the neutral face and how strong is 5.
8. As a result of the raising of the upper eyelid, the shape of the eye changes as portions medially and/or laterally are pulled up. This changed shape of the eye usually results in exposure of more sclera adjacent to the iris medially and/or laterally.
9. If the changes described under (6) and (7) above are strong, the person seems to be staring in a fixed fashion, almost as if the eyeball was protruding.
Compare images l+2+5i and 1+2+5ii with 1+2 and with 5i and 5ii. Note that 1+2+5i shows less extreme AU 5 than 1+2+5ii. Inspect the video of 1+2+5.
0 page 465 5i page 467 5ii page 467 1+2 page 471 page 381 for score page 383 for score page 383 for score page 387 for score 1+2+5i page 472 1+2+5ii page 472 page 388 for score page 388 for score page 416 for score
B. How to do AU Combination 1+2+5Follow the instructions for 1+2 and for 5, repeated below. Do 1+2 first then add 5. Add just a weak 5 and then increase the amount of 5.
AU Combination 1+2 (repeated from page 54): This behavior should be easy for you to do. Simply lift your eyebrows up, both ends as high as you can. Note the wrinkling in your forehead. In some people the wrinkling does not occur but the skin is still bunched up. In some people these wrinkles are permanently etched (see 0 and w0) but they deepen noticeably when 1+2 acts. Make sure you are not pulling your brows together (AU 4) when you lift them.
AU 5 (repeated from page 25): This movement is easy. Raise your upper eyelid as hard as you can so you can feel it pushing upwards against your eye cover fold. Observe whether or not sclera is exposed. If you have any difficulty, just try to open your eyes as wide as you can, increasing your field of vision and bulging your eyes. Try to do a weak version.
C. Intensity Scoring for AU Combination 1+2+5The intensity criteria for 1+2+5 are a combination the criteria for 1+2 and 5. The intensity criteria guidelines for combination 1+2 and AU 5 are repeated below. The criteria for 1+2 are oriented to AUs that are roughly equal in strength. Any combination of intensities for individual AUs can occur in the combinations of 1+2+5 and you have to carefully examine the appearance changes to determine the relative intensities of the AUs.
The appearance changes for AUs 1+2 are sufficiently present to indicate AU 1+2, but are insufficient to score 1B+2B (e.g., the entire brow is raised a trace).
1. Entire brow raised slightly.
If you did not see the brows move it must also meet the additional criteria:
2. Slight horizontal wrinkles1 or muscle bunching reaching across forehead. If horizontal wrinkles are evident in the neutral face, change from the neutral appearance must be slight.
4. If there is no wrinkling or bunching in the brow, but the brow raise and exposure of the eye cover fold is marked, you can score 1+2.
Entire brow is raised at least markedly, but less than for level 1D+2D. Wrinkling and eye cover fold exposure should both be evident and at least one should be at least marked, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 1D+2D.
Entire brow is raised at least severely. Wrinkling and eye cover fold exposure should both be evident and at least one should be at least severe, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 1E+2E.
The appearance changes for AU 5 are sufficiently present to indicate AU 5, but are insufficient to score 5B (e.g., a trace of upper lid raising that exposes more of the iris or sclera).
1. If the upper lid covers part of the iris in the neutral face, upper lid raise must be sufficient to expose virtually (very nearly) the entire iris, but no more than a hairline of sclera must be exposed above the iris. If more than a hairline of sclera shows, score 5C, 5D, or 5E.
2. If the entire iris shows in the neutral face, upper lid raise must be sufficient to expose sclera above iris, more than just a hairline of sclera is required to be exposed, but not much more. If much more than a hairline of sclera, score 5C, 5D, or 5E).
The sclera exposed is more than allowed by the 5B criteria, i.e., if the upper lid covers part of the iris in the neutral face, slightly more than a hairline of sclera is exposed; or if entire iris shows in the neutral face, markedly more sclera must be revealed, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 5D. When the eyes are deeply set or in some Asian faces, you may never see sclera in 5CDE, and you must make the decision based upon how much wider the eye aperture has become.
The amount of sclera exposed must be severely more than exposed in the neutral face, but the evidence is less than the criteria for 5E.
The upper eyelid is raised as much as the person can do, and close to the maximum sclera that the person can show is exposed above the iris, and there must be a bulging or staring appearance without doubt.
Intensity may vary for the two sides of the face, but give only one score that represents the higher intensity. Examine photo w5ii. Note the E level is reached on only one side of the face. But the score of E is given to the entire AU 5.1If you are scoring the face of an infant or child who never shows forehead wrinkles with AUs 1+2 or 1+2+4, then the wrinkling criterion needs to be discounted, and you must rely on the other criteria.