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Lateral View - Muscles of the Face and Head - Top two: superficial musles of head, neck, and face. Bottom two: facial muscles and bone cutaway to show deeper structures. The names of the muscles labeled in the top diagram and a short sketch of their functions, from the top and left to right, are:

  • Epicranius - runs over the top of the skull from the eyebrows to the back of the skull and has the following two parts:
  • Frontalis - pulls the eyebrows up and is the basis of AUs 1 and 2 in FACS, and
  • Occipitalis - tightens back of the scalp
  • Auricularis posterior - may move the ears
  • Auricularis superioris - may move the ears
  • Auricularis anterior - may move the ears
  • Orbicularis oculi - squints the eyes, and the part that is labeled, or outer part, is the basis for AU 6 in FACS; the inner part, mostly on the eyelids is the basis for AU 7 in FACS
  • Pyramidalis - lowers the glabella and helps wrinkle the nose
  • Zygomatic major - retracts and pulls the lip corners upwards and is the basis of AU 12 in FACS
  • Zygomatic minor - retracts and pulls the lip corners upwards and is the basis of AU 11 in FACS
  • Levator anguli oris - see below
  • Levator labii superioris - pulls the upper lip upwards and is the basis of AU 10 in FACS
  • Levator labii superioris alaque nasi - wrinkles the nose and is the basis for AU 9 in FACS
  • Compressor naris - see below
  • Masseter - a powerful muscle of mastication that closes the jaw
  • Orbicularis oris - acts to constrict and deform the lips and mouth opening and is the basis for several FACS AUs
  • Splenius - a muscle at the back of the neck with two parts, helps position the head
  • Levator (anguli) scapulae - a muscle in the back of the neck that helps control head position
  • Scalenus posticus - one of three scaleni, deep neck muscles that help position the head
  • Sternocleidomastoid - a ribbon-like muscle running along the side of the neck that tilts the head right or left
  • Risorius - retracts the lip corners and is the basis of AU 20 in FACS
  • Depressor anguli oris (Triangularis) - pulls the corners of the mouth downwards and is the basis of AU 15 in FACS
  • Depressor labii inferioris - see below
  • Trapezius - a large muscle in the area of the back shoulder, that has some fibers in the neck
  • Platysma - a large muscle that lies under the jaw and down the neck to the upper chest, and is the basis of AU 21 in FACS

The names of the muscles shown in the third diagram are:

  • Temporalis - elevates the jaw and moves it forward
  • Corrugator - lowers and pulls the eyebrows together and is the basis of AU 4 in FACS
  • Auricularis posterioris - see above
  • Compressor naris - constricts the nostrils
  • Levator anguli oris (Caninus) - elevates the lateral parts of the lips and is the basis for AU 13 in FACS
  • Depressor naris -lowers and may flare the alar pars of the nose
  • Buccinator - acts to compress the cheek towards the teeth and is the underlying muscle of AU 14 in FACS
  • Orbicularis oris - see above
  • Masseter - see above
  • Depressor labii inferioris - pulls the lower lip down and is the underlying muscle of AU 16

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